The first two columns list the DNA kit number and researcher for each line. If an e-mail address appears, the researcher has given express permission and is open to contact by anyone interested in the line. Some participants prefer to remain anonymous so there isn't any contact information.

The next eight columns give information about the earliest Kincaid ancestor the researcher is confident the line descends from. If the given name is blue, the researcher has submitted proofs of each linkage from the participant to the stated ancestor for review and those links have been determined to be valid.

The Line Migration column shows migration of the ancestor and his descendents to about 1850.

The Comments column gives additional information which might be helpful to other researchers or may indicate avenues for additional research.

The rest of the columns show the results at each site Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) has tested. A "marker" number and the allele name are given at the top of each column. Markers in red indicate sites which FTDNA has determined mutate at a faster rate than the average. The marker number is assigned by FTDNA. The allele name is common across DNA testing laboratories.


Participants have been organized into Groups and Sets based on DNA results. Each Group represents a given family genetically related within the group but unrelated to the Kincaid families in the other groups. At the top of each Group is a line giving the Apparent Ancestral Values (AAV) of the common ancestor for the entire Group. The AAV is determined by looking at the frequency of results at each allele. A subjective judgment is made when the results do not clearly indicate which of the two values is correct. Such a judgment was made in Group A at marker 15 (DSY 459b) as the value of 10 matches the larger RBI Haplogroup Group A Kincaids belong to. Each Group has its own letter and color. Mutations from the AAV are marked with the group color background.

The Sets and subsets in the larger Groups are formed by gathering results with a common significant mutation. Since a mutation is passed from father to son and a given mutation occurring twice is considered rare, it is more likely that participants in each set will find a common ancestor with someone in their own set before finding a common ancestor with someone in another set. For example someone in A-2b would be more likely to find a common ancestor with another participant in his set before finding a common ancestor with anyone in A-3 This may not be true in all cases. Determining which mutations are significant is somewhat subjective and is based on result patterns for current participants. Additional results may alter subset groupings.

As an example, in Group A a mutation to 11 at marker 4 (DSY 391) appears frequently. Originally this was considered a significant mutation but as additional results came in and several lines isolated the mutation to a specific individual it became apparent that the mutation occurred many times and may or may not have predictive value in establishing relationship. There are also scattered mutations which may have occurred in more recent times. As additional results come in their presence may hold more significance.

In addition to Set and Subset, in the large A-1a family those who believe descent from an ancestor living in Greater Augusta Co. VA during the 18th century have been gathered into a subdivision. Those who believe descent from Thomas Kincaid and Hannah Tincher have also been gathered into a subdivision. The large number of participants in these two divisions visually dominate Set 1a but may all have descended from a few individuals alive in 1700. When analyzing the entire early A-1 set, these divisions are best considered as a single early nuclear family.

Gray lines have been randomly inserted to aid the reader in following result lines across the chart.